HIV in Children

PROPHYLAXIS FOR MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (TB)

Dr. Ira Shah
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Last Updated : 1st September 2012
  • All HIV infected children with positive Mantoux test (MT) and no evidence of active TB or no history of previous treatment for TB should be treated for latent TB.

    Regimen - 6 months of INH / Rifampicin (INH alone may be given if resistance to INH is less than 5% in the general population)

  • HIV infected children (less than 5 years of age) in close contact with person with Open TB should be treated for latent TB regardless of their MT test and previous treatment for TB after excluding active TB.

    Regimen

    - 6 months of INH / Rifampicin (INH alone may be given if resistance to INH is less than 5% in the general population)

  • Secondary prophylaxis is a child who has been successfully treated for TB should not be given

  • Routine TB prophylaxis for HIV infected children is not recommended.

Drug Dosage Adverse Effects Remarks
INH 5-10 mg/kg/day PO OD Hepatotoxicity, peripheral neuritis, mild CNS effects Hyper sensitivity reaction Pyridoxine is recommended in children in all symptomatic HIV disease
Rifampicin 10-20 mg/kg/day PO OD Stains urine, tears, sweat, contact lenses and other body fluids orange. GI upset, skin rash, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, cholestatic jaundice Rifampicin accelerates clearance of Protease Inhibitors (PIs) & Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) resulting in sub therapeutic levels of the drug

PROPHYLAXIS FOR MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (TB)
Dr. Ira Shah
Incharge Pediatric HIV and TB Clinic, B.J.Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India Consultant in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Nanavati Hospital, Mumbai, India.
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