HIV in Children
GRAND ROUNDS AND TEACHING FILES
How did the child get HIV infection?
Ira Shah
Consultant in Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Pediatric Hepatology, Nanavati Hospital, Mumbai, India
Incharge, Pediatric HIV and TB Clinic, B J Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India

An 8 years old boy presented with a cough and diarrhea for 10 days, fever with chills for 5 days, and one episode of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions followed by altered sensorium for 1 day. The child has had multiple hospitalizations since Day 15 of life for recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Both paternal uncle and aunt had died 2 years ago due to AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). The child was diagnosed to be HIV infected 1½ year ago and had taken anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) for 1 year in view of positive Mantoux test (13 mm) and pulmonary lesions. He also took some ayurvedic treatment for his HIV disease for 4 months. There is no history of blood or blood component transfusion and both parents were HIV negative. He was eldest of 4 siblings and all other 3 siblings were HIV negative. On examination, he had failure to thrive, bilateral otorrhea, hepatosplenomegaly and bilateral crepitations. There are no meningeal signs. His investigations showed anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, elevated liver enzymes, bilateral pneumonitis and normal CSF and CT brain studies.

How did the child get HIV infection?
See Previous Teaching Files
Pediatric Oncall Book Store
NEW ARRIVAL
Infection in Children - Part 2

By Dr. Ira Shah
Case Rounds in Pediatric Liver Disorders
By Dr. Ira Shah
Tuberculosis
By Dr. Ira Shah
Management of Pediatric HIV
By Dr. Ira Shah
Infection in Children
By Dr. Ira Shah